Basic concepts of programming

Basic concepts of programming

No matter how complex programming languages are, they are based on the same simple elements. Components in the form of concepts are combined according to the pyramid principle, and as a result, the programmer creates the desired product: website, application, program. To master the basic concepts in programming, you do not need to be good at mathematics or master computer commands. By reviewing the basic concepts of programming, you will be able to explain them to children. What are the main elements?


The simplest component of any programming language is a variable. This concept refers to an object containing certain data. Variables have qualities: they have names, they come in several forms, including dynamic ones, they have a place to store and a period of validity. It is from the variables that computer programs of any complexity are formed.


Variables are endowed with functions, which are ready-made modules with a specific option. Interestingly, functions can be endowed not only with variables, but also with other program elements. It is noteworthy that functions are ready-made solutions, and programmers do not need to figure out how they work. In other words, when solving a certain problem, the specialist simply selects the desired function – this greatly simplifies the programming process, allows you to implement the necessary actions into the program.

Conditional constructs

In programming, the concept of “conditional construction” can be compared to reasoning. For example, when developing a program for taking readings of electric meters, you need to put the algorithm for transferring readings to a certain number. In this case, the conditional structure would be:

  • check the current date on the calendar;
  • if today the date is the 15th, then you need to send a message about taking meter readings;
  • if not, go back to the first step.

We have given an example of a simple program. In reality, conditional constructions are much more complex and “spreading”, numbering several dozen options for the development of events. Interestingly, if one of the options is not provided, then the program will stop its work and crash.   


The concept of “cycles” underlies the ability of computer systems to process an enormous number of operations per second. The specialist puts a task in front of the computer, “looping” it until he gets the desired result. Attending courses at the it future programming school, teachers explain the concept of a cycle with a simple example. Analyzing this topic, an analogy is drawn with cleaning the room. The solution in the form of a cycle in this case is written as follows:

  • while there are textbooks on the table, put them on the shelf:
  • otherwise, go to the closet.

The example shows that until the cycle is completed (until the robot removes all the textbooks from the table), it will not proceed to cleaning the bed.

Structures and data types

Variables can be not only names, but also various classes of numbers, symbols, and character sets. To make it easy to handle variables of different types, programmers combine them into specific structures. They can be compared to structures with ordered data. Developers have many ways to structure information based on the tasks at hand.
At first glance, the basic concepts of programming may seem complicated and even intimidating. But, gradually getting acquainted with them and applying them in practice, a novice programmer begins to comprehend the essence of each of these concepts. Just as the longest path starts with the first step, so the most complex program consists of the simplest elements and concepts!